|The Atlantis We Look For|
|The Circle of Evolution|
|Old Maps and Writings|
|Can Lands Sink and Rise?|
|Old Texts - Just Stories?|
|The Underwater Search|
|Mysteries on Shore|
|The Current Search|
|Location Theories I|
|Location Theories II|
|Location Theories III|
|Is it Mesopotamia?|
|Mysteries of Ancient Civilizations: Solved|
Last Update: February 26,
©1997 - 2007Andreea Haktanir
I. The Lost Island
This chapter can be found more or less on the Internet, but sometimes it's disorganized (even my old Atlantis page was disorganized), so I will try to put it together for you. Also, I am trying to read and locate the exact passages dealing with Atlantis in these writings, so once I find them, I will quote them for you.
I want to draw your attention to a few facts though: if the old civilizations haven't witnessed or haven't gathered the information from someone that had witnessed an earthquake or volcanic eruption, then I must say they had a very exact imagination of the phenomenon.
In Meso- and South-America, Aztecs and Mayans are said to have mentioned Atlantis in "Chilam Balam", "Dresden Codex", "Popul Vuh", "Codex Cortesianus", and "Troano Manuscript". Pretty impressive list I'd say... They also talk about Lemuria, another continent thought to have sunk even before Atlantis.
In "Chilam Balam" I have found this: "Then they were buried in the sands, in the sea. There would be a sudden rush of water when the theft of the insignia <of Oxlahun-ti-ku> occurred. Then the sky would fall, it would fall down upon the earth, when the four gods, the four Bacabs, were set up, who brought about the destruction of the world." Like the Mexicans, the Maya believed that the present order was preceded by other worlds which had been destroyed. According to the former, the fourth of these worlds, or "Suns," was destroyed by a great flood of water (Seler 1923, p. 40).
The Mayan "Popol Vuh" ("The Collection of Written Leaves") says: "Over a universe wrapped in the gloom of a dense and primeval night passed the god Hurakan, the mighty wind. He called out "earth," and the solid land appeared. The chief gods took counsel; they were Hurakan, Gucumatz, the serpent covered with green feathers, and Xpiyacoc and Xmucane, the mother and father gods. As the result of their deliberations animals were created. But as yet man was not. To supply the deficiency the divine beings resolved to create mannikins carved out of wood. But these soon incurred the displeasure of the gods, who, irritated by their lack of reverence, resolved to destroy them. Then by the will of Hurakan, the Heart of Heaven, the waters were swollen, and a great flood came upon the mannikins of wood. They were drowned and resinous thickness descended from heaven. [...]
There was heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (eaves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them. . . Water and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."
Also the "Popol Vuh", speaking of the first home of the Guatemalan race, says that "black and white men together" lived in this happy land "in great peace," speaking "one language." The Popol Vuh goes on to relate how the people migrated from their ancestral home, how their language became altered, and how some went to the east, while others traveled west (to Central America).
In "The Myths of Mexico and Peru" (1913), Lewis Spence says: "Ere the earth was quite recovered from the wrathful flood which had descended upon it there lived a being orgulous and full of pride, called Vukub-Cakix (Seventimes-the-colour-of-fire-the Kiche name for the great macaw bird). His teeth were of emerald, and other parts of him shone with the brilliance of gold and silver. In short, it is evident that he was a sun-and-moon god of prehistoric times. He boasted dreadfully, and his conduct so irritated the other gods that they resolved upon his destruction. His two sons, Zipacna and Cabrakan (Cockspur or Earth-heaper, and Earthquake), were earthquake-gods of the type of the Jotuns of Scandinavian myth or the Titans of Greek legend. These also were prideful and arrogant, and to cause their downfall the gods despatched the heavenly twins Hun-Apu and Xbalanque to earth, with instructions to chastise the trio.
The Aztec book, "Codex Chimalpopoca", translated by Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, says:
"This is the sun called Nahui-atl, '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth times. When the sun Nahui-atl came there had passed away four hundred years, plus two ages, plus seventy-six years. Then all mankind was lost and drowned, and found themselves changed into fish. The sky came nearer the water. In a single day all was lost, and the day Nahui-xochitl, '4 flower,' destroyed all our flesh. And that year was that of cé-calli, '1 house,' and the day Nahui-atl all was lost. Even the mountains sunk into the water, and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs."
In Europe, Holland, the Frysian book - also one of the oldest books ever found - "Oera Linda Book". Qoute: "During the whole summer, the sun hid itself behind the clouds, as if unwilling to shine upon earth. In the middle of quietude, the earth began to quake as if it was dying. The mountains opened up to vomit forth fire and flames. Some of them sunk under the earth while in other places moutains rose out of plains. Atland disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over the hills and dales that everything was buried under the seas. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the waters."
"Younger Edda" (also known as "Prose Edda" or "Snorri's Edda") is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains mythological stories. According to "Gylfaginning", from "The Prose Edda" of Snorri Sturlson, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur in 1916, "King Gylfi ruled the land that men now call Sweden".
"King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he was much troubled that the Æsir-people were so cunning that all things went according to their will. He pondered whether this might proceed from their own nature, or whether the divine powers which they worshipped might ordain such things. He set out on his way to Ásgard, going secretly, and- clad himself in the likeness of an old man, with which he dissembled. But the Æsir were wiser in this matter, having second sight; and they saw his journeying before ever he came, and prepared against him deceptions of the eye. When he came into the town, he saw there a hall so high that he could not easily make out the top of it: its thatching was laid with golden shields after the fashion of a shingled roof."
He assumes the name Gangleri. He is told the story of creation, of the gods, and the city of Troy is also mentioned: "When the sons of Borr were walking along the sea-strand, they found two trees, and took up the trees and shaped men of them: the first gave them spirit and life; the second, wit and feeling; the third, form, speech, hearing, and sight. They gave them clothing and names: the male was called Askr, and the female Embla, and of them was mankind begotten, which received a dwelling-place under Midgard. Next they made for themselves in the middle of the world a city which is called Ásgard; men call it Troy. There dwelt the gods and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have come to pass both on earth and aloft."
The people then tell Gangler the tale of Ragnarok. In the Introduction of the book, one can read: "The beginning of the book is a summary of the Biblical story of the Creation and Deluge, followed by a rationalized account of the rise of the ancient pagan faith, according to which the old gods appear, not as deities, but as men."
In Greece, I will mention Plato, Plutarch, and Herodotus for now, even though Diodorus, Aristotle, Marcellus, Proclus, Crantor, Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus have mentioned Atlantis in a way or another. The reason for this is that I want to research the matter a bit more, read the rest of the passages and then give the readers the reasonable explanation and quotes.
We should also mention Solon, the great law-giver of Athens 600 years before the Christian era. Solon made lots of trips. He was a very honest man, a philosopher, a poet. In his book, "The Life of Solon", Plutarch (45 - 120 AD) says:
"His [Solon's] first voyage was for Egypt, and he lived, as he himself says,
Near Nilus' mouth, by fair Canopus' shore,
and spent some time in study with Psenophis of Heliopolis, and Sonchis the Saite, the most learned of all the priests; from whom, as Plato says, getting knowledge of the Atlantic story, he put it into a poem, and proposed to bring it to knowledge of the Greeks. From thence he sailed to Cyprus. [...] Now Solon, having begun the great work in verse, the history or fable of the Atlantic Island, which he had learned from the wise men in Sais, and thought convenient for the Athenians to know, abandoned it; not, as Plato says, by reason of want or time, but because of his age, and being discouraged at the greatness of the task; for that he had leisure enough, such verses testify, as
Each day grow older, and learn something new
But now the Powers of Beauty, Song, and Wine, Which are most men's delights, are also mine.
Plato, willing to improve the story of the Atlantic Island, as if it were a fair estate that wanted an heir and came with some title to him, formed, indeed, stately entrances, noble enclosures, large courts, such as never yet introduced any story, fable, or poetic fiction; but beginning it late, ended his life before his work."
Plato (427 - 347 BC) begins his book:
"Critias. Then listen, Socrates, to a strange tale, which is, however, certainly true, as Solon, who was the wisest of the seven sages, declared. He was a relative and great friend of my great-grandfather, Dropidas, as be himself says in several of his poems; and Dropidas told Critias, my grandfather, who remembered, and told us, that there were of old great and marvellous actions of the Athenians, which have passed into oblivion through time and the destruction of the human race and one in particular, which was the greatest of them all, the recital of which will be a suitable testimony of our gratitude to you...."
"Let me begin by observing, first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between all those who dwelt outside the Pillars of Heracles and those who dwelt within them: this war I am now to describe. Of the combatants on the one side the city of Athens was reported to have been the ruler, and to have directed the contest; the combatants on the other side were led by the kings of the islands of Atlantis, which, as I was saying, once had an extent greater than that of Libya and Asia; and, when afterward sunk by an earthquake, became an impassable barrier of mud to voyagers sailing from hence to the ocean.
[...] Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years, for that is the number of years which have elapsed since the time of which I am speaking; and in all the ages and changes of things there has never been any settlement of the earth flowing down from the mountains, as in other places, which is worth speaking of; it has always been carried round in a circle, and disappeared in the depths below. The consequence is that, in comparison of what then was, there are remaining in small islets only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of the country being left.
[...] In one day and one fatal night, there came mighty earthquakes and inundations that engulfed that warlike people.
[...] Zeus, the god of gods, who rules according to law, and is able to see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a woeful plight, and wanting to inflict punishment on them, that they might be chastened and improve, collected all the gods into their most holy habitation, which, being placed in the centre of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them together, he spoke as follows-*" (worked was left unfinished here, because Plato died)
You can read the full work of Plato's "Dialogues" here.
As one deducts, Atlantis was sunk by the will of Gods, through flood(s) and earthquake(s). The Bible, in Genesis, follows the same path:
"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. [...] For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth."
Ignatius Donnelly, in his book, "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World" (1884), mentions an old sacred book of Babylon. The Chaldean stories (there are two) agree on this:
"Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the Assyrian month Sivan--a little before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. He therefore commanded him to take the beginning, the middle, and the end of whatever was consigned to writing, and to bury it in the City of the Sun, at Sippara; then to build a vessel, and to enter it with his family and dearest friends; to place in this vessel provisions to eat and drink, and to cause animals, birds, and quadrupeds to enter it; lastly, to prepare everything, for navigation. And when Xisuthros inquired in what direction he should steer his bark, be was answered, 'toward the gods,' and enjoined to pray that good might come of it for men."
Most of the tribes of Indians in North America have legends that talk about the flood.
The same story appears in Mesopotamia.
"There was a time when Enlil, the most powerful of the Gods, was displeased with mankind and decided to send a flood that no living being could survive. But the verdict seemed to harsh to Ea, a fellow-god, who forewarned his favorite mortal, Utnapishtin, in a dream. Taking heed, Utnapishtin built a boat for himself and loaded it with his family and 'the seed of all living creatures... the game of the field, and all the craftsmen'. The boat weathered the storm, which raged for six days and six nights." (according to "Cradle of Civilization", Time Life Books) Sumerians started their civilization in 3000 BC and when on till 2000 BC. Hebrews started their civilization in 1200 BC. The story of the flood exists in all Near Eastern Cultures, as for Hebrews, they are mentioned as "Hibru" existing among other populations before they have formed their own state.
Our scientists agree that a flood occurred 10-15,000 years ago.
My conclusion: Since all these old civilizations mentioned Atlantis in a form or another, or the destruction of an Atlantis-like island and a big flood, it's hard to imagine that they've all been lying or re-telling a story told to them. People in those times were pretty interested in their stories and tradition was everything. I would rather guess that the story had a common root, based on evidence. The survivors of the destruction scattered and landed on the closest areas from the sunk island. Then the story of the sunk land was passed on, and became the basis of religion (more on this in my future project)
II. Is Atlantis Lost Indeed?
Herodotus, in his "History", Vol.1, has a few passages about "Atlantis".
"184. From the Garmantians at a distance again of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it called Atarantians, who alone of all men about whom we know are nameless; for while all taken together have the name Atarantians, each separate man of them has no name given to him. These utter curses against the Sun when he is at his height, and moreover revile him with all manner of foul terms, because he oppresses them by his burning heat, both themselves and their land. After this at a distance of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it. Near this salt hill is a mountain named Atlas, which is small in circuit and rounded on every side; and so exceedingly lofty is it said to be, that it is not possible to see its summits, for clouds never leave them either in the summer or in the winter. This the natives say is the pillar of the heaven. After this mountain these men got their name, for they are called Atlantians; and it is said that they neither eat anything that has life nor have any dreams.
185. As far as these Atlantians I am able to mention in order the names of those who are settled in the belt of sand; but for the parts beyond these I can do so no more. However, the belt extends as far as the Pillars of Heracles and also in the parts outside them: and there is a mine of salt in it at a distance of ten days' journey from the Atlantians, and men dwelling there; and these all have their houses built of the lumps of salt, since these parts of Libya which we have now reached are without rain; for if it rained, the walls being made of salt would not be able to last: and the salt is dug up there both white and purple in color.Above the sand-belt, in the parts which are in the direction of the South Wind and towards the interior of Libya, the country is uninhabited, without water and without wild beasts, rainless and treeless, and there is no trace of moisture in it.
194. Next to these are the Gyzantes, among whom honey is made in great quantity by bees, but in much greater quantity still it is said to be made by men, who work at it as a trade. However that may be, these all smear themselves over with red ochre and eat monkeys, which are produced in very great numbers upon their mountains.
195. Opposite these, as the Carthaginians say, there lies an island called Kyrauis, two hundred furlongs in length but narrow, to which one may walk over from the mainland; and it is full of olives and vines. In it they say there is a pool, from which the native girls with birds' feathers smeared over with pitch bring up gold-dust out of the mud. Whether this is really so I do not know, but I write that which is reported; and nothing is impossible, for even in Zakynthos I saw myself pitch brought up out of a pool of water. There are there several pools, and the largest of them measures seventy feet each way and is two fathoms in depth. Into this they plunge a pole with a myrtle-branch bound to it, and then with the branch of the myrtle they bring up pitch, which has the smell of asphalt, but in other respects it is superior to the pitch of Pieria. This they pour into a pit dug near the pool; and when they have collected a large quantity, then they pour it into the jars from the pit: and whatever thing falls into the pool goes under ground and reappears in the sea, which is distant about four furlongs from the pool. Thus then the report about the island lying near the coast of Libya is also probably enough true.
196. The Carthaginians say also this, namely that there is a place in Libya and men dwelling there, outside the Pillars of Heracles, to whom when they have come and have taken the merchandise forth from their ships, they set it in order along the beach and embark again in their ships, and after that they raise a smoke; and the natives of the country seeing the smoke come to the sea, and then they lay down gold as an equivalent for the merchandise and retire to a distance away from the merchandise."
Usually Herodotus, when referring to the countries or cities, 'outside the Pillars of Heracles' usually talks about the western coasts of Africa and Europe that open to the Atlantic Ocean. He doesn't mean "islands' in the Atlantic like you would guess.
A Roman scholar mentioning the existence of a 'world' outside the Pillars is Aelianus Claudius, also known as Aelian (c. 175 - c. 235). Even though he was Roman, he spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called 'honey-tongued'. He preferred to write in archaic Greek.
In his work, Varia Historia (Various History), he talks also about natural wonders and strange local customs. Unfortunately, the book was translated only three times in English, once by Fleming (1576), then by Stanley (1665), and the last translation was made nowadays by Diane Ostrom Johnson, in 1997. I used a French translation of the text.
Here is a little quote I have translated from the French version (in book iii, chapter xviii):
"If one believes Theopompus, Midas, king de the Phrygians, discussed one day with Silene (Silene was sun of a nymph, and for this reason, though it was by his birth of an order lower than the gods, as them, nevertheless, he was immortal, and extremely above the condition of the men). After having discussed various things, Silene called to Midas:
'Europe, Asia and Libya are islands which the floods of the Ocean bathe on all sides: out of the enclosure of this world there is one continent, whose extent is immense. It produces very large animals and men of a size twice higher, which are not those of our climates: as their life it is not limited to the same space of time as ours; they live twice longer. They have several large cities, controlled according to uses which are conforming for them; their laws form a perfect contrast with ours.
Between these cities, there two of extraordinary extent, and which don't resemble each other at all. One is called Machimos (the Warlike one), and the other Eusebia (the Pious one). The inhabitants of Eusebia spend their days in peace and abundance: the ground lavishes its fruits to them, without them needing ox nor plough; it would be superfluous to plow and sow. After a life which was constantly prone to diseases, they die merrily and laughing. With the remainder, their life is so pure, that often the gods do not scorn to visit them. To the inhabitants of Machimos, they are very quarrelsome: always armed, always in war, they unceasingly work to extend their limits. This is how their city managed to order several nations; one does not count there less than two million citizens. The examples of people who died of disease are very rare there. All die in the war, not by iron (iron cannot do anything to them), but struck by stone blows or blows of stick. They have such a great quantity of gold and money, that they make of them less case than we do make of iron. Formerly, continued Silene, they wanted to penetrate in our islands; and after having crossed the Ocean with ten million men, they arrived to the Hyperborean ones: but these people appeared in their eyes so cheap and so despicable, that having learned that they were nevertheless the happiest nation of our climates, they scorned to pass by.'
What Silene added is much more astonishing still: 'In this country, he says, the men that one distinguishes by the name of Meropes, are Masters of several large cities: on the borders of the territory which they live in is a place called Anoste (without return), which resembles a pit, and is neither enlightened, nor dark; the air which forms its atmosphere, is mixed with an obscure red. Two rivers run in the surroundings; the river Pleasure, and the river Sorrow, thus they are named: their edges are covered with trees, the height of a large plane tree. Those which grow on the edges of the river Sorrow, produce fruits of such a quality, that whoever tastes them, pours as well tears as it becomes exhausted, and dies finally, after having spent its days in pain. The trees which shade the other river bear fruits of a very different quality: that which eats some, suddenly feels his heart freed of the passions which agitated it; if he loved, he loses the memory of it. He rejuvenates per degrees, while passing by again by all the ages of his life, which he had left behind him: from the old age he returns to the 'age wall', from this one to adolescence, then to puberty; he ends up becoming a child; then he dies." Those who look at Theopompus of Chio like a writer worthy of faith, can believe this account: for me, in this history and several others, I see only one maker of tales."
The first map is Benincasa map (1482), one of the maps studied by Columbus when he set sail for the Indies. On the left you can see the Piri Reis map, which was made in 1511. In the South you can see Antarctica, way before it was actually discovered. At the map's origin seemed to have been a couple of old maps. ( I will tell you more about Piri Reis and his map and the investigation that has been going on since the discovery of the map a little later, when I have time to translate and research documents.)
Right below, Ptolemy's map, published in Strasbourg in 1513. It was recovered from Constantinople in 1400.
Below you have Athanasius Kircher's map (1669). Kircher was a Jesuit German priest, who lived between 1602-1680. He published "Mundus Subterraneus", a book containing a map of Atlantis according to ancient Egyptian maps. The original map was taken from Egypt by the Romans, probably around 30 B.C.
Some claim that Kircher's island looks like the Antarctica on Piri Reis' map, and like nowadays Antarctica without the ice. The inscriptions on the continents say: "America, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis, Africa, Spain". In the upper corner: "Site of Atlantis, now beneath the sea, according to the beliefs of the Egyptians and the description of Plato".
Being based on Egyptian maps, in Kircher's map north becomes south. The compass should point up, not down, so then the map would become the way we are used to it now: Africa and Spain, the Strait of Gibraltar on the right, and America, on the left.
According to Hapgood, 15,000 years ago, Antarctica was 2500 miles North of where it is now. Also, Reality TV said that once Antarctica was found where Sahara is now.
Once the map is reversed, you can see the resemblance. However, Kircher's Atlantis looks like an Antarctica without the ice cap.
However, this map is also the reason why Atlantis is being searched in Azores.
The question being asked by the Atlantis believers is if it is more likely to look for Atlantis on an island that moved thousands of kilometers south to reach Antarctica's position now and mostly ignore Plato's story, or to search for it in the Azores, where the tops of the volcanoes are still on land.