|The Atlantis We Look For|
|The Circle of Evolution|
|Old Maps and Writings|
|Can Lands Sink and Rise?|
|Old Texts - Just Stories?|
|The Underwater Search|
|Mysteries on Shore|
|The Current Search|
|Location Theories I|
|Location Theories II|
|Location Theories III|
|Is it Mesopotamia?|
|Mysteries of Ancient Civilizations: Solved|
Last Update: February 26,
©1997 - 2007Andreea Haktanir
We will deal here with cities, islands, civilizations lost because of calamities.
According to Roman history and tradition, Vesuvius had never erupted before August 79 AD. It only smoked a bit from time to time. The explosion was extremely violent; it covered the city of Pompeii with ashes and killed 2000 people. Since that time, Vesuvius has had numerous minor eruptions and 18 major ones, the last one in 1944.
In the spring of 1902, Mont Pelee (Martinique) in the Caribbean erupted and besides wiping out the biggest city of the country, Saint Pierre, it killed 30,000 people. The cone had been dormant for half a century. The only survivor was a prisoner in an underground dungeon.
In 1883, the violent explosion of Krakatao sent bits of pumice and dust up into the air 20 miles. Some of the dust was carried completely around the world by currents in the upper air. The entire mountain disappeared. The eruption cracked walls in Buitenzorg, Java, 100 miles away. The tidal wave that was created engulfed the neighboring shored and killed 36,000 people. The detonation was heard for 3,000 miles.
In the same area, in 1815, the volcano Tomboro on the island of Sumbawa took 12,000 lives.
In October 1822, another earthquake occurred on the island of Java. Lyell, in his Principles of Geology, says "the earth shook, and immense columns of hot water and boiling mud, mixed with burning brimstone, ashes, and lapilli, of the size of nuts, were projected from the mountain like a water-spout, with such prodigious violence that large quantities fell beyond the river Tandoi, which is forty miles distant." Four days later a second volcano eruption occurred accompanied by a violent earthquake and the summit of the mountain broke down. Over 4,000 people were killed and 114 villages destroyed. And this happened back then, when population wasn't as dense as it is now.
In 1912, in Alaska, Katmai erupted and blanketed Kodiak, 100 miles away, under a 10- to 12-inch fall of ash.
These are a couple of examples from modern times.
However, 6500 years ago Mount Mazama erupted and created the Crater Lake, in America. The volcano displaced about 17 cubic miles of rock. The mountain was swallowed up in its own crater.
Helike and Bora are ancient Greek islands that sank during Plato's time. You will find more information on the legendary city of Helike later on.
According to Pliny, in 186 BC, in the gulf of Santorini, near Greece, the island of Old Kaimeni (the Sacred Island) emerged from the sea. In 19 AD, Thera (the Divine, Santorini), home of the Mynoan civilization appeared. However, parts of this island had sunk around 1,600 BC after a powerful eruption. The volcano sent the rocks swirling in the sky and to the island of Crete. Stones from Santorini are found on Crete. I will debate over this when I mention Santorini as a possible location for Atlantis. Also, in 1573 AD, another island was created and it was called "the small sunburnt island". In 1848, another volcanic convulsion that lasted three months created a great shoal. Since Santorini had emerged, the island went on sinking until, by the end of the 19th century, it had submerged 1200 feet.
Let's start with some easy examples. Within 5,000 years the shores of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway have risen from 200 to 600 feet. The coast or Peru continues to sink. Professor Winchell (The Preadamites) says that in 70 years the Andes sank 220 feet. Also, "the coast of South America lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour".
Most of the information above uses as a source Ignatius Donnelly's book, Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. Other data was gathered from the net, from reliable sources.
In 1783, Iceland was touched by tremendous earthquakes. According to Donnelly, "about a month previous to the eruption on the main-land a submarine volcano burst forth in the sea at a distance of thirty miles from the shore. It ejected so much pumice that the sea was covered with it for a distance of 150 miles, and ships were considerably embedded in their course". An island emerged, and the Danish Majesty claimed it. It was called the "New Island". A year later, the island sank again, at about 30 fathom under water. The earthquake killed 9,000 people out of a population of 50,000.
The most interesting account is that of the Mexican volcano of Paricutin, west of Mexico City. It belongs to the Sierra Madre range. For 15 days before its appearance the earth trembled. In February 1943, a farmer who was plowing his cornfield saw a spiral of steam rising from the ground. Explosions rocked the night and by morning, the volcano had built up a cone of 50 feet. The puffs ejected every six seconds cinders, ash, and bombs of solid rock estimated at 2,700 tons a minute. Within six months the cone had reached 1,000 feet, and in one year it had reached 1,500 feet. For a radius of 20 miles all vegetation was killed and more than 8,000 people had to be evacuated. The volcano ceased to erupt in 1952. Its neighbor, El Jorullo, was born in 1759 and was active for 19 years.
In 1819, the fort and village of Sindree (east side of Indus), was submerged by an earthquake, together with a tract of country 2000 miles in extent.
In 1831, in Sicily, as a result of an earthquake, a whole new island emerged. It was called "Graham's Island". It reached a height of 200 feet and a circumference of three miles, in a month. Soon, however, it sank again.
In 1737, as a result of an earthquake and hurricane in Calcutta, India, 300 000 people died.
In November 1775, Lisbon (Portugal) an earthquake threw down the greater part of the city. In six minutes 60,000 people died. The area where the quay sank was at the end of the 19th century 600 feet deep.
In September 1730, in the Canaries, the earth opened near Year, in Lancerota Island. Several explosions created a hill of ejected matter. Eruptions continued and lava ran over villages and ten days later the lava had reached the sea. Putrid vapors condensed into drops killed the cattle around the country. The storms going on at that time were stronger than anything seen before by the people. The thing has lasted for five years, and the lava covered one-third of the island.
In 1963, a fishing boat off the south coast of Iceland radioed the base to report a cloud of smoke raising from the ocean. An explosion sent rocks flying out of the sea and a black land emerged from the depths. A weak later, the island was 200 feet above sea level and, since eruptions continued, by 1967 was 500 feet high and a mile long. The island was named Surtsey. Nowadays, the land is inhabited by birds and plants.
According to A. Tomas, Atlantis from Legend to Discovery, in 1780 a Spanish explorer, Maurelle found an island in South Pacific. The island was called Falcon. In 1892, the Government of Tonga planted 2000 coconut trees on the island, however, in 1894 the island was gone.
In 1135, in the Caspian Sea, the fortress of Caravan-Sarai rose from the waters, only to sink back again. In 1723, it rose again and it is still there nowadays.
In the Bay of Naples (Mediterranean), the sunk Temple of Jupiter-Serapis, built in 105 BC, rose again in 1742.
In Azores (has 12 volcanoes) a volcano rose suddenly in 1808 in San Jorge, at a height of 3500 feet. It burnt for 6 days and desolated the whole island. In 1811, near San Miguel, another volcano rose creating an island 300 feet high. The place was called Sambrina, but it soon sank again. Other similar eruptions took place in 1691 and 1720.
I will quote now from Donnelly's book, that uses Lyell's Principles of Geology:
"In the Nautical Magazine for 1835 [...], and in Compte Rendus, April, 1838, accounts are given of a series of volcanic phenomena, earthquakes, troubled water, floating scoria, and columns of smoke, which have been observed at intervals since the middle of the last century, in a space of open sea between longitudes 20 degrees and 22 mins W., about half a degree south of the equator. These facts, says Mr. Darwin, seem to show that an island or archipelago is in progress of formation in the middle of Atlantic."
The examples could go on and on, but I think I have made my point. It's not so hard to believe anymore that a continent can sink and rise in a single night, or, if you are still doubting that, in 1 matter of months.